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The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gender-Specific Differences in Immunity

Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF) animals of the same or opposing gender.
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The effect of age on the intestinal mucus thickness, microbiota composition and immunity in relation to sex in mice

A mucus layer covers and protects the intestinal epithelial cells from direct contact with microbes. This mucus layer not only prevents inflammation but also plays an essential role in microbiota colonization, indicating the complex interplay between mucus composition-microbiota and intestinal health.
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Gut microbiota and host defense in critical illness

In health, a diverse microbiome might enhance host defense, while during critical illness, the dysbiotic microbiome might contribute to comorbidity and organ dysfunction. Future research should be aimed at further establishing the causes and consequences of dysbiosis seen in the critically ill, which will provide perspective for developing new strategies of intervention.
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High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice.

The changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were predominantly driven by high-fat feeding rather than reflecting the obese state of the mice. Differences in the abundance of butyrate and propionate producing bacteria in the gut may at least in part contribute to the observed differences in obesity propensity in Sv129 and BL6 mice.
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Mouse models for human intestinal microbiota research: a critical evaluation

Since the early days of the intestinal microbiota research, mouse models have been used frequently to study the interaction of microbes with their host. However, to translate the knowledge gained from mouse studies to a human situation, the major spatio-temporal similarities anddifferences between intestinal microbiota in mice and humans need to be considered.
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